Nursing Theory to use: From Novice to Expert

Nursing Theory to use: From Novice to Expert

Nursing Theory to use: From Novice to Expert

  • Population/ Patient Problem:  Consider how your selected nursing theory may guide you in selecting the population and/or patient problem
  • Intervention:  Does your selected nursing theory identify a possible intervention?  If not, how is your selected intervention consistent with your selected nursing theory?
  • Outcome:  How would the outcome of your PICOT study contribute to your selected nursing theory?  Would it add new information?  Would it confirm some part of the theory?

Nursing Theory to use:

From Novice to Expert – Patricia E Benner

NR 500 PICOT question:

What education/method can be implemented by the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) nurses in order to prevent bloodstream infections from central line venous catheters (CVLs) in critically ill patients in the ICU?

P (Population) – ICU patients with CVLs

I (Intervention) – Education for nurses to prevent bloodstream infections

C (Comparison) – CVL bloodstream infection caused by lack of education/proper care by ICU nurses

O (Outcome) – Decreased number of infections, decrease in cost of care and length of stay, and decrease in number of deaths in ICU patients with CVLs

T (Timeframe) – Immediate with continuous monitoring of outcomes


You must proofread your paper. But do not strictly rely on your computer’s spell-checker and grammar-checker; failure to do so indicates a lack of effort on your part and you can expect your grade to suffer accordingly. Papers with numerous misspelled words and grammatical mistakes will be penalized. Read over your paper – in silence and then aloud – before handing it in and make corrections as necessary. Often it is advantageous to have a friend proofread your paper for obvious errors. Handwritten corrections are preferable to uncorrected mistakes.

Use a standard 10 to 12 point (10 to 12 characters per inch) typeface. Smaller or compressed type and papers with small margins or single-spacing are hard to read. It is better to let your essay run over the recommended number of pages than to try to compress it into fewer pages.

Likewise, large type, large margins, large indentations, triple-spacing, increased leading (space between lines), increased kerning (space between letters), and any other such attempts at “padding” to increase the length of a paper are unacceptable, wasteful of trees, and will not fool your professor.

The paper must be neatly formatted, double-spaced with a one-inch margin on the top, bottom, and sides of each page. When submitting hard copy, be sure to use white paper and print out using dark ink. If it is hard to read your essay, it will also be hard to follow your argument