PH 300 Grossmont College Discussion: Health Determinants & Community Needs
Discussion: Health Determinants & Community Needs
Summary of Research
The members of this group include the following: Valerie Garcia, Sierra Korn, Mariam Mekha, Meili Murray, Lillian Nguyen, Linda Ortega, Amy Rojas, Delia Saber, and Amariah Torres. Our group was able to meet a total of six times. To begin this group project, we all shared our availability and discussed the action plan that would be taken. All members of the group collectively played a part in selecting the desired cities, and everyone was open to suggestions. From there, each member got to choose what city they wanted to be a part of for researching. Once the two groups were made, everyone got the chance to pick out the task they wanted to conduct research on. Completion dates were set in order to keep everyone on the same pace. We had one person who was mainly in charge of the powerpoint and one in charge of the research summary. To avoid having these people overloaded with work, everyone decided to create their own slides and summaries on the information that they had gathered. Since everyone had access to the documents, we were able to keep everyone in check and provide feedback on needed adjustments. Discussion: Health Determinants & Community Needs
Over the course of three weeks, we collected quantitative data through the distribution of a Google survey on a private Facebook group called
Friends of Oceanside
. The sample size for this entire cross-sectional study ended up being 63. People of the community who took the survey were asked a range of multiple-choice and short answer questions. The objective of these questions was to help collect data on social determinants that have affected the city of Oceanside during the current COVID-19 pandemic. Further analysis was conducted using this data to compare findings with other colleagues. Data collection was also done through online research and map analysis to support our results. With these methods we were able to develop a clear research protocol that allowed the county of Oceanside to be represented in the most accurate way possible.
Oceanside is the region that neighbors Carlsbad and Vista. It consists of the zipcodes 92054, 92056, 92057, and 92058. Based on current demographics, Oceanside’s population consists of 176,080 individuals. Of these individuals, 50.4% are female, 15.5% are persons 65 or older, and 21.4% are persons 18 and under. The ethnicity with the largest population is white, which makes up 74.7% and is followed by African Americans who are 4.7% of the population. In Oceanside, the median house value is $595,000, while the median rent value is $1,892. The average income per individual is $27,009 per year and the median household income is $58,385 per year. There is a 3.7% unemployment rate, affecting mostly those who are low income workers. Oceanside’s case rate is gradually increasing and has been placed in the highest restrictive tier, the purple tier. Many businesses and other operations have been forced to shut down or drastically decrease volume of individuals which greatly affects employment, income, and healthcare.
As of November 14, 2020, the total number of positive COVID-19 cases in Oceanside was reported at 2,657. More females than males have reported positive cases at 1,548. Males saw about 200 less cases than females. The highest case rate by age is held by the 80 years of age and older group with 1,014.7 cases and the lowest being children ages 0-9 who saw about 515.6 reported cases. For the category by Race/Ethnicity, the highest at 2,236.5 cases is the Hispanic group with Asian/Pacific Islander following closely behind with the least amount of cases in the “Other” category.
In the city of Oceanside, there are a total of 6 COVID-19 testing sites. Of these, only 3 are through the San Diego County testing sites. These specific ones are only available Monday through Thursday, and they vary each week. This could be a major barrier to people who work typical 9-5 jobs during the week and only have weekends off. In general, people tend to be more available on the weekends than they are during the week, so not having testing sites that are open on the weekends could be an issue. Five out of the six COVID testing sites require an appointment, which means it could take days or weeks to get tested since appointments fill up fast. This could be very inconvenient for people who need to get tested quickly because now they are having to make the appointments online instead of just going straight to a testing site. Testing is free for everyone, but the two CVS locations only offer their testing to limited patients. This is most likely for people who have health insurance, which tends to be the middle/upper class. Half of the testing sites are walk-in locations, while the other half are drive-thru. This can be a barrier for people who do not have cars because they wouldn’t be able to use those locations. Most community and residential areas are on the opposite end of the city where testing sites are not found. A majority of people will have to drive further distances to get to these testing sites. Discussion: Health Determinants & Community Needs
There are a total of 19 food distribution centers in Oceanside. Of these centers, 8 of them are condensed around each other near the coast. There are fewer centers near the community/residential areas which limits accessibility and distribution around the area. More than half of the food distribution centers are for the youth ages 1-18, while some are catered towards anyone and others are for 65+ or military families. They all vary between days of the week and hours they are open, but all have consistent time frames every week. This is very beneficial as it allows these resources to be easily accessible.
There are no COVID-19 testing sites available on the weekends through the San Diego County testing sites. This is a major downside because people who are exposed on a Thursday or Friday are not able to get tested until the following Monday. It is also a barrier for those who work during the week and only get weekends off. This relates to employment as a social determinant of health because it impacts the working class who are only available to get tested on the weekends. It also limits their ability to return back to work quickly if they test negative by not having testing open on the weekends.
According to the California Healthy Places Index, the region where there are a lot of food distribution centers clumped together are mainly where access to an automobile is low. This was a good finding related to community resource scan because it shows that the city is meeting the community’s need by making food more accessible and in walking distance for those without a car.
We could drive to Oceanside. A small informative table could be set up outside of a grocery store so that we could get more participants to take the survey.
The survey could have been shared on other social media platforms to get a more diverse group since the majority of participants were female.
Oceanside should open a COVID-19 testing site that is available on the weekends. This would help to address employment as a social determinant of health as it would allow flexibility on the days and hours of when you could get tested. This would resolve any barriers to getting tested by not limiting availability to week days only.
The senior population has the highest reported number of cases. Oceanside can take better care of their senior population by allowing early hours for seniors in grocery stores and discounted rates for delivery and takeout to encourage seniors to separate themselves from the general public in order to decrease rates within the specific age group.
Oceanside should have more testing sights available for walk-ins. Most testing sites are by appointment only which can be a barrier for many. Discussion: Health Determinants & Community Needs
A survey was taken by forty-eight randomly selected Chula Vista Residents. Survey questions pertained to certain social determinants of health such as economic stability, education, healthcare systems, and community and social context. The survey was open to applicable people from November 1, 2020 through November 30, 2020. Applicable participants took the survey on Google Forms, which was distributed through social media and flyers. Additionally, the surveyor went door-to-door and personally handed the flyers where the participants could take the survey. Despite efforts, a fractional size of the entire Chula Vista population was represented in this data but efforts for actual representation were established.
Based on current demographics, Chula Vista’s population consists of a total of 274,492 individuals. Of these individuals, 50.6% are female, 12.1% are persons 65 or older, and 25.7% are persons 18 and under. The ethnicity with the largest population is hispanic/latino which consists of 58.8% of the population, followed by 65.6% of whites.
As of November 16,2020, the total number of positive cases in Chula vista was 8,201. Chula Vista’s case rate is at 15.7 which places it in the purple tier. Many businesses and other operations have been forced to shut down which greatly affects employment,income and healthcare. In Chula Vista, housing costs are high compared to the income level. The median house value is $465,000, while the median rent value is $1,536. The average income per individual is $29,143 and the median household income is $76, 354. The percentage of people 16 and over who are in the labor force is 63.4. There is a high risk of unemployment, with a 14% unemployment rate, affecting mostly those who are low income workers. Given these demographics, the Hispanic/Latino community within Chula Vista have been largely hit by this pandemic. Many fear getting tested because they do not want to risk missing work. Working conditions can become difficult for those who are constantly around others and have to come home to their families. It becomes difficult to maintain financial stability especially with medical bills, rent, food, and other necessities.
In the educational context, learning and development has greatly been disrupted. There is less physical activity as well as lack of active and effective learning because of COVID-19. Managing schedules between parents and students has made it difficult for students to fully engage in school. Parents have to miss work to help their children out in school. Others have difficulty finding a babysitter which adds to their daily expenses. Those who participate in school lunch programs are affected by COVID-19 because they begin to deal with food insecurities and children develop poor immune systems.
Testing sites in the Chula Vista area are available Sunday-Saturday. According to the San Diego county website, on Sundays there is a drive up testing site available from 12:30-8pm, Monday-Thursday there are two drive up testing site locations that are available until 8pm. On Friday there is both a walk up and drive up location available for testing. On Saturdays there is one walk up, with appointment testing site available from 7am-7pm. Based on this information, there are not many testing sites in the Chula Vista area that are open, however, there are flexible hours that allow individuals to get tested. This may not be convenient for many since only one or two locations are open within the area of Chula Vista. COVID-19 screening becomes an issue especially to those who are homeless or do not have access to reliable transportation. Discussion: Health Determinants & Community Needs
The following information is data gathered from the forty-eight random Chula Vista residents:
When asked about age, 32 people [66.7%] said they were between the ages of 18 to 24 years-old; 8 people [16.7%] said they were between the ages of 25 to 34 years-old; 5 people [10.4%] said they were between the ages of 55 to 64 years-old; 2 people [4.2%] said they were between the ages of 12 to 17 years-old; and 1 person [2.1%] said they were between the ages of 35 to 44 years-old. The data obtained from age shows that the majority of the randomly selected participants come from the age groups of 18 to 24, which is the age group with the highest percentage of asymptomatic cases (McLernon and CIDRAP News).
When asked about ethnicity, 44 people [91.7%] said they were Hispanic while 4 people [8.3%] said they weren’t Hispanic. These numbers show that the majority of survey participants come from a minority group, where Hispanics/Latinos make up 58.8% of the total Chula Vista population and Whites make up 65.6% of the total population (United States Census Bureau).
When asked if currently employed, 26 people [54.2%] said they were employed whereas 22 people [45.8%] said they were unemployed. The data obtained from this question shows that as of November 2020, nearly half of all survey participants were either employed or unemployed. If this survey was taken pre-COVID, the numbers would greatly contrast from today’s data. The data gathered shows the impact the pandemic has had on Chula Vista residents’ jobs where unemployment rates are nearly double that of northern counties (Chatlani).
A major key finding identified in the resource scan was the gap between east and west Chula Vista. The initial resource scan found that resources were heavily compiled on the west.
Based on the data, it is evident that more outreach needs to happen between the Chula Vista government and its residents. Nearly half of all survey participants said they felt like Chula Vista didn’t make an effort to reach out to the community with support and resource organizations.
Additionally, residents should have access to a monthly-updated map pinpointing all local community organizations and resources in their city. This additional resource would help residents in knowing the nearest outreach centers in close proximity to their house if they lacked transportation needs.
Majority of participants had some schooling but no higher education degree. Creating a local ad-based campaign explaining what COVID-19 is, what residents can do to stay safe, and available resources to those in need will help in better educating residents, especially those in the West side of Chula Vista.
Create more resources that are more readily available and accessible in the west side of Chula Vista to bridge the gap between the two sides.
California Healthy Places Index Map
. (2020). The California Healthy Places Index (HPI). https://map.healthyplacesindex.org/.
Chatlani, Shalina. “South Bay Communities Brace For Another Surge Of Coronavirus Cases.”
KPBS Public Media
, 24 Nov. 2020, www.kpbs.org/news/2020/nov/24/historically-neglected-south-bay-communities-brace/. Accessed 1 Dec. 2020.
City of Chula Vista. (2020). Retrieved December 02, 2020, from
McLernon, Lianna Matt, and CIDRAP News. “COVID-19 Hot Spots May Start with Young Adults.”
, 12 Oct. 2020, www.cidrap.umn.edu/news-perspective/2020/10/covid-19-hot-spots-may-start-young-adults. Accessed 1 Dec. 2020.
United States Census Bureau. “U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: Chula Vista City, California.”
, www.census.gov/quickfacts/fact/table/chulavistacitycalifornia/PST045219. Accessed 1 Dec. 2020. Discussion: Health Determinants & Community Needs