ANTH 101 Los Angeles Pierce College Chapters 9 to 11 Study Guide Paper

ANTH 101 Los Angeles Pierce College Chapters 9 to 11 Study Guide Paper

ANTH 101 Los Angeles Pierce College Chapters 9 to 11 Study Guide Paper




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Question Description

I’m working on a Science question and need guidance to help me study.


ALL ANSWERS WILL BE FOUND IN THE TEXTBOOK. EACH SECTION SAYS WHAT CHAPTER. HERE IS THE LINK FOR THE TEXTBOOK:

https://pressbooks-dev.oer.hawaii.edu/explorations…

Questions based on lectures and Chapter 9 “Early Hominins” [Pre-Australopithicines:

S. tchadensis

,

Orrorin tugenensis

,

Ar. kadabba

and

Ar. Ramidus


]:

  1. The last three

    epochs

    of geologic time are
  2. The four species of pre-australopithecines (before 4.4 mya, discovered so far) are(chooseone)


    • Sahelanthropus tchadensis,


      Orrorin tugenensis, Ardipithecus kaddaba,

      and

      Ardipithicus ramidus

    • Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Ardipithecus ramidus, Paranthropis aethiopicus,

      and

      Paranthropis boisei

    • Sahelanthropus, Oldowan, Australopithecus naledi,

      and

      Australopithecus hippocampus.

    • Spagettius lotsapasta, Oldowanis bonobo, Acheuleanthus boisei

      and

      Acheuleanthus tchadensis
  3. A cranial characteristic of robust australopithecines (also known as species of

    Paranthropus

    ) due to their dietary adaptations for chewing nutritionally poor and tough leaves, nuts, and roots is
  4. To date, all

    pre-

    australopithecine and australopithecine (gracile and robust species) fossil remains have been found on which continent?
  5. According to information available in the fossil record, which human characteristic appeared first?
  6. Based on the evidence contained within the fossil record, the earliest hominin bipedalism emerged approximately (and with which species?):
  7. Which geologic

    epoch

    occurred just before the Pleistocene “Ice Age”?
  8. You find a fossilized skeleton in Ethiopia that you are sure is bipedal. You think this because which of the following anatomical traits is present?
  9. Name the primate that believed to be the first bipedal hominin:
  10. Name the hominin skeleton that was discovered 40% complete by Dr. Donald Johansen and his team in Ethiopia, would have stood 3 1⁄2 feet tall, retained some arboreal capabilities and had a relatively small cranial capacity (430 cc):
  11. The original name for Mary Leakey’s discovery of

    Paranthropus boisei

    was
  12. A robust australopithecus species is also called by the genus _______________ (Hint:

    Paranthropus, Ardipithecus, Homo,

    or

    Orrorin

    ?)
  13. Of the four pre-australopithecine species discovered, ______________________ is missing a cranium and is still disputed to be an early hominnin ancestor of humans.
  14. The two forms of australopithecines (4-1 mya) are called _______________ (Hint: Grace and Robert, feminine and masculine, gracile and robust, or folivore and carnivore…?)
  1. The robust

    Australopithecus

    genera of hominins (also called

    Paranthropus

    ) had large “megadont” molars, flaring zygomatic arches, and a sagittal crest. These are dietary adaptations for eating a lot of
  2. The australopithecine species that was discovered in 2008, by Lee Berger’s 9 year-old son Matthew, in Malapa Nature Reserve north of Johannesburg, South Africa is
  3. Today, anthropologists call humans and humanlike ancestors that habitually walked on two feet ___________ (Hint: Hominids or hominins?)


Questions based on lecture and Chapter 10 “Early Members of the Genus

Homo

” [

H. habilis, H. erectus, H. naledi, H. luzonensis, H. floresiensis

]: ANTH 101 Los Angeles Pierce College Chapters 9 to 11 Study Guide Paper

  1. The ________________ is the longest tool culture that lasted, over 1 million years, and is associated with

    H. erectus.

    (Hint: Mousterian, Acheulean, Lomekian, or Oldowan?)
  2. “Nariokotome Boy” (“Turkana Boy”), the skeleton of an 8-9 year old that dated to about 1.6 mya was discovered in Lake Turkana, Kenya. The scientific name of his species is
  3. The earliest stone tools were recently discovered at Lomekwi, Kenya and were dated to 3.3 mya and are called ______________.
  4. The “Cooking Hypothesis” by Richard Wrangham states that the ability to cook food enabled the rapid evolution of __________________ with a 33-40% increase in body size and 33% increase brain size in less than 500,000 years (1.9 mya-1.8 mya).
  5. The

    oldest

    stone tools, dating about 3.3 mya and associated with

    Au. afarenesis

    , are
  6. According to the fossil record, when and where do we first see the earliest examples of the genus Homo (i.e. Homo habilis) ? (Hint: North America, North Africa, East Asia, or Europe?)
  7. During the Lower Paleolithic

    Homo habilis

    (“Handy Man”) produced the tool culture called
  8. According to widely accepted archaeological evidence, the first hominin to control fire, rely on cooperative hunting and gathering, and migrate out of Africa is
  9. The earliest evidence of Homo erectus outside of Africa, about 1.8 mya, is in _____________ (Hint: West Asia place that rhymes with the Italian word

    forgia

    )
  10. Which of the following cranial features would you expect to find on a member of

    Homo erectus

    ?
  11. The Lomekian (3.3 Ma), Oldowan (2.6–1.7 Ma), and Acheulean (1.76–0.1 Ma) stone tools cultures are categorized as part of the cultural period known as the ___________________ (Hint: Lower Paleolithic, Middle Paleolithic, or Upper Paleolithic?)
  12. The earliest evidence of intentional burials was by the hominin species ___________. They were found in Dinaledi cave, South Africa and were recently dated to 236,000 and 335,000 years old. (Hint:

    Homo neanderthalensis, Homo naledi, Homo sapiens,

    or

    Homo heidelbergensis

    ?)
  13. The earliest evidence of sophisticated wooden tools (complex material culture) found in Europe are the 300 thousand year old _________________ spears.
  14. The Homo erectus known as “Nariokotome/Turkana Boy” was discovered at
  15. The four (4) early, and more primitive, species of the genus

    Homo

    are _____________, _____________, ___________, and ______________. (Hint: Two are dwarfed Homo species that were discovered in the Philippines and in Indonesia).
  16. A 3 ft. tall adult female skeleton (“LB-1”) was discovered in 2003 in Ling Bua cave in Indonesia and recently re-dated to be about 60,000 years old. She was a (Hint:

    Homo erectus, Homo sapiens, Homo floresiensis,

    or Australopithecus

    garhi

    ?)


Questions based on lecture and Chapter 10: “Early Members of the Genus Homo.” [H. heidlebergensis, LCA, H. neanderthalensis, H. denisova, Coro-Magnon H. sapiens. ]

  1. The oldest examples of representational art in Europe are cave paintings dating 32ka. The name of the cave is and it is in____________.
  2. To date, the majority of Neanderthal fossils have been found in (Hint: Europe, Africa, West Asia, Australia, or East Asia?)
  3. Why are the skeletal remains of Homo neanderthalensis often found with so many fractures?
  4. The Neanderthals made thin sharp bifacial stone knives from prepared stone cores that date from the Middle Paleolithic (300kya-45kya). These lithics are called
  5. During what cultural time period do we first start seeing examples of symbolic expression in the form of representational art (such as Chauvet Cave in France, Venus figurines, and the Lion Man figure discovered in Germany)? (Hint: Lower, Middle or Upper Paleolithic).
  6. Which of the following cranial features would you expect to find on a member of

    Homo neanderthalensis

    ?
  7. The best fossil evidence to suggest that Homo

    neanderthalensis

    could produce a language like that of modern humans comes from which bone(s)?
  8. Which model proposes a hypothesis that gene flow occurred between anatomically modern humans from Africa and archaic human populations in Europe and Asia and thus explains the origin of modern humans today?
  9. Generally speaking, which species had the

    largest

    cranial capacity, lived during the Late Pleistocene, and went extinct by 29,000 years ago?
  10. Some anatomical features and about 3- 5% of the DNA of Melanesians and Aboriginal Australians derive from which species of archaic humans?
  11. What are physical characteristics of anatomically modern humans (AMH)?

    • Small faces, jaws, and teeth.
    • A vertical and high forehead.
    • Relatively narrow nasal apertures, less wide body trunks, and long legs.
    • All of the above?
  12. What do early Homo sapiens fossils reveal about the origins of AMH?
  13. Early anatomically modern H. sapiens evolved in Africa and then dispersed.
  14. Nearly modern people evolved in Africa as early as 300,00 years ago according to fossils and tools discovered in Morocco and recently re-dated in 2017.
  15. From about 70,000 to 27,000 years ago four different species of hominins lived on Earth: H. neanderthalensis, H. floresiensis, H. denisova and H. sapiens.
  16. All of the above?
  1. What developments are unique to early anatomically modern humans (AMH)?
  1. More advanced tools made from multiple materials like stone-tipped spears, etc.
  2. First representational art like cave paintings of animals and carved figurines.
  3. First hominines to migrate to North and South America.
  4. All of the above?
  1. What distinguishes most species of archaic H. sapiens from H. erectus?
  1. Increased brain size.
  2. Decreased size of premolars and molars (back teeth)
  3. Reduction in skeletal robusticity.
  4. All of the above?
  1. Artifacts of the Middle Paleolithic like Mousterian tools are primarily associated with which species of archaic human?
  1. According to fossil and genetic evidence, modern H. sapiens most likely evolved on which continent?
  1. According to fossil evidence, the small H. floresiensis is best described as
  • a descendant of H. erectus that evolved smaller due to island dwarfism.
  • a descendant of Au. anemensis that evolved smaller due to island dwarfism.
  • an archaic H. sapiens that suffered from microcephaly due to the Zika virus.
  • an archaic Hobbit from Middle Earth, which everyone knows is in New Zealand.
  1. For anthropologists, AMH stands for
  1. Generally speaking, which species had the

    smallest

    cranial capacity according to cranial remains, lived during the Late Pleistocene in Indonesia, and went extinct by around 100,000 to 60,000 years ago?
  1. Which hominin species was the earliest to use pain relievers like silicic acid (active ingredient aspirin) from the bark of poplar trees and antibiotics like penicillin from food mold?
  1. According to DNA evidence from dental calculus (plaque), which hominin species had a diet of 80% meat, and 20% plants and hunted large herbivores like mammoths, rhinoceroses, and sheep with spears in Europe?
  1. Which hominin species most likely created Europe’s oldest known cave art, 40,800 year old red ochre disks and handprints found in El Castillo cave, Spain.
  1. The representational art of Chauvet Cave (32 ka) and carved Venus and lion man figurines are categorized as part of the cultural period known as the
  1. Which hominin species was recently discovered in a cave in the Philippines?


Questions based on lecture and Chapter 11 “Archaic

Homo

” [

H. heidelbergensis, H. denisova, H. neanderthalensis,

and Cro-Magnon

H. sapiens

]:

  1. Where have fossils of

    Homo neanderthalensis

    been discovered? In other words, where did they live during the Pleistocene?
  2. According to genetic evidence from comparing the genomes of Neanderthals with anatomically modern humans, what happened to the Neanderthals? (Hint: Extinction or assimilation into the modern human

    Homo sapiens

    genome?)
  3. Where have fossils of

    Homo heidelbergensis

    been discovered? In other words, where did they live during the Pleistocene?
  4. What stone tool culture is associated with neanderthals? (Hint: Lomekian, Oldowan, Acheulean, Mousterian, or Solitarian?)
  5. Which species of hominins had the largest brain size during the Ice Age (Pleistocene Epoch)? (Hint:

    heidelbergensis, H. denisova, H. neanderthalensis,

    or Cro-Magnon

    H. sapiens?)
  6. According to genetic evidence from comparing the genomes of Denisovans with anatomically modern humans, what happened to the Denisovans? (Hint: Extinction or assimilation into the modern human

    Homo sapiens

    genome?)
  7. Which species of hominins was the first to intentionally bury their deceased members in a cave? (Hint:

    naledi, H. denisova, H. neanderthalensis,

    or Cro-Magnon

    H. sapiens?)
  8. Which species of hominin had the largest brain? (Hint:

    sapiens and H. floresiensis, H. neanderthalensis

    and

    H. denisova?)
  9. Which species of archaic hominin was the likely ancestor of all anatomically modern

    Homo sapiens

    alive today? (Hint:

    heidelbergensis, H. denisova, H. neanderthalensis,

    or

    H. erectus?)
  10. Adaptations to the cold like infraorbital informina, large nasal aperture, and wide stocky body (Bergmann’s Rule) with short limbs (Allen’s Rule) are associated with the archaic human species: (Hint:

    heidelbergensis, H. denisova, H. neanderthalensis,

    or Cro-Magnon

    H. sapiens?)
  11. An occipital bun is a cranial characteristic found on the hominin species __________ (Hint:

    Australopithecus africanus, Homo erectus, Paranthropus boisei,

    or

    Homo neanderthalensis?)
  12. A sagittal keel is a cranial characteristic found on the hominin species __________ (Hint:

    Australopithecus africanus, Homo erectus, Paranthropus boisei,

    or

    Homo neanderthalensis?)
  13. A sagittal crest is a cranial characteristic found on the hominin species __________

    ___

    (Hint:

    Australopithecus africanus, Homo erectus, Paranthropus boisei,

    or

    Homo neanderthalensis?)
  14. As of 2018, the oldest symbolic and representational cave art in Europe that was made by

    Homo neanderthalensis

    is_______________ (Hint: Chauvet Cave France dating 32 Ka or El Castillo Cave, Spain dating 40 Ka?)
  15. The

    descendants

    of

    Homo heidelbergensis

    include

    Homo neanderthalensis, Homo denisova

    , and _____________ (Hint:

    Homo sapiens, Homo erectus, Homo naledi,

    or

    Homo floresiensis

    ?)


    THE QUESTIONS ABOUT ANATOMICALLY MODERN HUMANS (AMH), AMH MIGRATIONS, AND MODERN BEHAVIORS, SEE BELOW, WILL BE ON QUIZ #5 (Update as of 11/19/20):

  16. Which model of human distribution out of Africa has been proved with genetic evidence? (Hint: Multiregional Continuity Hypothesis, Out-of-Africa Hypothesis or Assimilation Hypothesis?)
  17. The earliest symbolic cultural items associated with

    modern

    sapiens


    were

    Middle Stone Age

    artifacts discovered in

    __________

    and dated to 78,000 years ago. (Hint: Europe, Asia, South Asia, Africa).
  18. As of 2018, the oldest symbolic and representational cave art in Europe that was made by

    Homo sapiens

    is _______________ (Hint: Chauvet Cave France dating 32 Ka or El Castillo Cave, Spain dating 40 Ka?)
  19. The first

    Homo sapiens

    to reach North America are called Paleoindians and their earliest archaeological sites are in (Hint: the Channel Islands in California dating around 13 Ka or Clovis, New Mexico dating around 11 Ka?)
  20. The earliest stone tools of Homo sapiens discovered in the Americas are (Hint: microliths for making fishing gear, Clovis stone spear points for spears, stone projectile points, or stone arrowheads for bows and arrows?)


 

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